Connected over three billion people in 170+ countries
30-year track record of
safety & security
Huawei is an independent, privately-held company that provides information and communication technology (ICT).
We serve three main types of customers globally:
Everything we develop and deliver to our customers is secure, trustworthy, and this has been consistent over a track record of 30 years.
We were founded in 1987, in the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen, with about 21,000 RMB in start-up capital. Since then, we’ve grown to become the world’s largest supplier of telecommunications equipment and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones.
In 2018, we delivered US$105.2billion in revenue. On July 30, 2019, we announced our business results for the first half of 2019: CNY 401.3billion in revenue, a 23.2% increase over the same period last year. We rank 61 on the 2019 Fortune Global 500 list.
Huawei employs 180,000 people in more than 170 countries. We are a market leader in China and many countries across Europe, Asia, and Africa. More than 3 billion of the world’s population uses Huawei’s products and services to make calls, send text messages, or surf the internet.
We focus on innovation, and we are one of the world’s largest investors in R&D.
We have a global R&D presence, with 14 R&D Institutes and Centers, 36 joint innovation centers and 45 training centers. Nearly half of our employees are engaged in some form of R&D and in 2018 Huawei invested over US$15 billion in 2018. In the next five years, we plan to invest US$100 billion.
Huawei is one of the world’s largest patent holders. We have been granted 87,805 patents and 11,152 core technology patents were granted by the United States.
We are actively involved in more than 360 standards bodies and we have put forward more than 54,000 proposals to set industry standards. We also invest in open source communities and partner with major industry players to innovate in emerging domains, such as cloud computing, 5G, and the Internet of Things.
Huawei is the front-runner in the race to 5G. We are more than a year ahead of the rest of the industry in terms of 5G technology and deployment. We are the only company that can provide end-to-end 5G systems. This includes both wireless base stations and self-developed antennas and chips. This unique technological advantage allows Huawei to deliver the best-performing, most-integrated, and energy-efficient 5G solutions in the industry.
We have earned the trust of more partners for 5G deployment than any other company. We have signed 50 commercial contracts and signed cooperation agreements with more than 50 partners. We have shipped more than 150,000 5G base stations across Europe, Asia and the Middle East.
Without Huawei’s innovation and products, the roll-out of 5G would take more time, be more expensive and consumers would be left paying the bill. Governments and customers that are focused on using the best supplier for their 5G network deployment will substantially shorten the time-to-market of this new technology. For example, LG U+ in Korea has already launched 5G services after deploying 5G networks with Huawei equipment.
Huawei started research in 5G as early as 2009 and we have been a key contributor to 5G standards. We believe in an open and competitive marketplace that allows operators and consumers to realize the benefits of affordable 5G. To that end, we have established industry organizations, such as the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA), 5G Slicing Association (5GSA), and 5G Alliance for Connected Industries and Automation (5G-ACIA) and are a member of the EU’s 5G Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership (5G PPP).
Artificial intelligence (AI), in the simplest terms, is the creation of machines that think, adapt and demonstrate human-like intelligence. Much like electricity during the Industrial Revolution, AI will be the pivotal technology in the 21st century. The applications of AI are almost limitless and they have already touched numerous industries including healthcare, automotive, financial, and gaming. Huawei expects the global AI market to reach US$380 billion by 2025.
We have been working on AI for 10 years and our strategy is to invest in research and talent, build a strong AI portfolio, foster an open global ecosystem, and drive operational efficiency at Huawei. Our AI solutions are making this emerging and evolving technology more accessible and more affordable for everyone.
We recently launched our full-stack, all-scenario AI portfolio, which can be used across all types of networks, clouds and devices, and it offers broad functionality for our customers. In the telecom sector, our AI technologies will streamline network operations and management. Our AI solutions are helping businesses and governments become more efficient.
For consumers, our technology makes smart devices even smarter. In our new Mate 20 Pro device, we incorporated incredible AI features into the camera, including an app that can “translate” facial expressions and emotions into corresponding sounds for the visually impaired. And our new AI Ascend series chips are aimed at data centers and smart devices. These chips can process more data more quickly than any other chip on the market, allowing people to access the information they need even faster.
We are committed to working with industry partners, open source communities and developers to make AI more inclusive, effective, and reliable for everyone. As testament to this, we announced in October 2018 a $140 million education fund to train the next generation of AI talent.
Huawei is the world’s second largest smartphone manufacturer. Last year, sales exceeded a record $52 billion for consumer products in 2018. We sold more than 200 million smartphones and a total of 100 million PCs, tablets, wearable devices, routers and other IoT devices.
Our two flagship smartphones – the Mate series and the P series – are products of a 30-year-long experience in the ICT industry. These devices bring together some of our finest innovations, helping people to make the most of the world around them.
In 2018 we launched our Huawei Mate 20 series, which incorporated a brand-new AI chip that, along with incredible lens technology from our partners at Leica, revealed the industry’s best-performing smartphone camera.
In December of last year, we took this a stage further with our Mate 20 Pro which now comes with software able to “translate” facial expressions and emotions into corresponding sounds helping the visually-impaired engage with the world around them.
Our innovation doesn’t stop there: our batteries deliver some of the longest lasting devices on the market, our GPU Turbo processing technology delivers super-smooth graphics that make games a joy to play on a mobile. And we were the first smartphone company to achieve the industry’s leading safety certification for super-fast battery charging.
2019 will see more technology firsts with the incorporation of 5G chips into our devices. The world’s first folding smartphones will also be announced in February 2019.
As with all of our other technologies, we are committed to working co-operatively across the industry. Our HiAI ecosystem, based on our Kirin (AI) chipsets, is open to partners and developers around the world to create new, intelligent applications.
Security is in Huawei’s DNA and security requirements are embedded into how we design, build and deliver all our products. Since Huawei was founded in 1987, there has not been a single major cyber security incident.
We are fully aware of the importance of cyber security and understands the various concerns of governments and customers regarding security. Huawei believes that the establishment of an open and transparent security assurance framework will be conducive to the sound and sustainable development of the entire industry and technological innovation; it will also facilitate smooth and secure communications between people.
With this in mind, Huawei has built – and will continue to invest in – an end-to-end global cyber security assurance system. Every year, we spend 5% of our R&D budget on cyber security R&D. On top of that, we will invest US$2 billion, over the next five years, to further enhance the security of our products and services globally.
This is a crucial company strategy and demonstrates our commitment to expanding and refining a robust compliance system to ensure we abide by all applicable laws and regulations in the countries and regions where we operate, including all export control and sanction laws and regulations of the UN, US, and EU. This is both corporate policy and our most fundamental operating principle.
In today’s connected society, if the global ICT industry is unable to solve or confront the threats of cyber security, the digital world will inevitably collapse.
That’s why ensuring secure networks for our customers is our number one goal.
And serving customers is the only reason Huawei exists.
Natural disasters, wars, cyber attacks – nothing has ever stopped us from doing our absolute best to give customers a stable, reliable, secure network.
Despite what you may have heard, we’re a 100% private company, owned by our employees. We don’t have a silent partner. We answer to no one. We comply with all laws and regulations.
If any authority tried to force us to maliciously violate our customers’ trust, we would rather shut the company down than allow our reputation to be forever ruined.
Every big tech company has a vision – a way of imagining the future. Ours is to bring digital technology to every person, home, and organization for a fully connected, intelligent world.
We are ready to make sacrifices – at any cost – to realize that vision, and to defend our customers’ privacy and security.
We vow never to hurt any country, organization, or individual by compromising their security or violating their trust.
That is our highest agenda. And our solemn promise to you.
We are committed to cyber security and privacy protection. We are committed to building trust and high quality into every ICT infrastructure product and solution we develop.
Huawei will spend US$2 billion over the next five years to increase the security standards of our equipment and improve our software engineering capabilities and practices.
Huawei’s cyber security focus areas:
Security: To strengthen the defensive capabilities of our products, including their ability to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of services and data
Resilience: To ensure the system can continue to be in a known state while under attack, even if in a degraded state, and rapidly recover after an attack.
Privacy: Protecting privacy is a regulatory requirement and one of Huawei’s key values. Users should be able to appropriately control how their data is used, and when and if they want to receive information based on their own individual needs. Data use policies should be transparent, and we need to ensure the right set of capabilities and mechanisms to fully protect private data.
Reliability & Availability: To ensure long-term, fault-free operations for the entire lifecycle of our products. They must be able to rapidly recover and self-manage, and provide predictable and consistent service.
Unified standards and certifications are an important part of Huawei's cyber security assurance system. Huawei advocates and complies with globally accepted cyber security standards and certifications.
Since 2004, Huawei's security management system has passed BS7799-2/ISO 27001 certification, and Huawei's products have passed more than 200 security certifications, including CC, FIPS, PCI DSS, CSA STAR, and O-TTPS.
Huawei remains open and transparent, and actively collaborates with governments, customers, and third-party testing institutions that independently test and evaluate the security of Huawei's products and solutions.
We have been working with the UK government since 2010. We established an independent Cyber Security Evaluation Centre in the UK, which evaluates the security of the products that Huawei sells in the UK telecom market. We have also established a similar system in Canada.
Huawei has built two security testing environments in Brussels and the city of Dongguan, China. These environments provide the necessary testing tools, equipment, resources, and technical support for customers or their designated third-party institutions. This helps them to independently verify the security of Huawei's products. Many customers have completed verification with the support of Huawei.
We create value for our customers. We provide organizations and industries with open, flexible, and secure ICT infrastructure platforms that help them go digital. We offer enterprise customers stable, reliable, and secure cloud services that evolve with their needs. Our smartphones and other smart devices improve people's digital experience in work, life, and entertainment.
We enable sustainable development. As a responsible corporate citizen, Huawei bridges the digital divide in the world’s remotest areas and disaster-stricken communities. Our equipment has restored communications networks and ensured the reliable operation of essential telecoms equipment in Ebola-affected areas of West Africa, nuclear contaminated zones following the Japanese tsunami, and the massive earthquake that struck Sichuan in China. Everything we do prioritizes low-carbon and environmental protection, providing our customers with top-of-the-line products and solutions that save energy and reduce Huawei’s environmental impact. Our global Seeds for the Future program works with young talent across 108 countries and regions to transfer knowledge, and encourage broader involvement in the digital community.
We ensure secure and stable network operations. We have developed close relationships with carrier partners over 30 years, building 1,500+ networks in more than 170 countries and regions. Together, we have accelerated the arrival of the Information Age by connecting more than three billion people around the world. We have helped the Internet become truly accessible and interconnected.
We promote industry development. We are driving the industry forward as an active member of more than 360 standards organizations, industry alliances, and open source communities, to develop mainstream standards and lay the foundation for the industry’s shared success. Together, we are driving innovation in cloud computing, software-defined networking (SDN), network functions virtualization (NFV), and 5G.
We drive economic growth. Huawei generates tax revenues, provides local employment opportunities, and stimulates the development of the ICT value chain in every country where we operate. Furthermore, we deliver innovative ICT solutions that drive the digital transformation of all industries, fostering economic growth and improving quality of life.
lightreading.com reported that US efforts to halt the progress of Huawei and ZTE in global equipment markets have largely failed so far, according to new data published by respected market-research firm Dell'Oro. The Chinese equipment vendors both managed to grow their share of revenues from the world's overall telecom equipment market last year, while the US's Cisco and Finland's Nokia suffered declines, says Dell'Oro in a company blog published today and distributed by email. Huawei remained the world's biggest vendor by far, according to the Dell'Oro statistics, with 28% of the market. That is the same level Dell'Oro recorded for Huawei in 2018, suggesting gains by the company were marginal. "The efforts by the US government to curb Huawei's rise has so far had mixed results," said Dell'Oro in a statement distributed by email. "We estimate Huawei's overall telecom equipment share continued to improve in 2019, but the pace of the 2019 share growth was weaker than its average 2014-19 share growth."
reuters.com reported The Swiss government has filed a criminal complaint over the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency’s alleged use of a cryptography company as a front to spy on various governments’ secret communications, the Swiss attorney general’s office said on Sunday.
The complaint against persons unknown for alleged breaches of the law governing export controls follows recent reports on “Operation Rubicon”, which for decades involved the CIA and German BND spy services covertly reading other nations’ secret messages encoded with technology sold by Swiss firm Crypto AG.
The case of Crypto, which sold encryption devices and software while being secretly owned by U.S. and German intelligence services that could freely read what it encrypted, is embarrassing for neutral Switzerland and could hurt its international reputation, particularly if it turned a blind eye.
On the record: open discussions with Huawei executives
Fully documented interviews with Mr Ren on the history, thinking, ethics and principles behind Huawei, with leading news and media agencies.
IP is incredibly important and Huawei respects it. Huawei is a leader in IP and is always innovating and investing heavily in R&D. Huawei has over 85,000 patents, is #1 in the world for ICT patents, is the #1 patent holder in Europe and is a top 50 patent holder in the U.S. In fact, Huawei filed over 5,000 patents with WIPO in 2018. For 5G, Huawei is #1 in the world for patents.
Huawei collaborates with industry partners by actively participating in patent alliances and patent tools, to reduce potential patent litigations and disputes. Huawei has more than 100 patent license agreements (including unilateral and cross licenses) with many major global ICT companies, including Nokia, Ericsson, Qualcomm, AT&T, Apple and Samsung.Since 2001, Huawei has paid more than $6 billion to license IP from third parties, 80 percent of which was paid to U.S. companies.
No, Huawei has not had any major cybersecurity incidents while working with more than 500 telecom providers, including most of the top 50 telecom operators, for nearly 20 years in 170 countries to connect more than 3 billion people. No other vendor can claim this level of cybersecurity success.
Currently, Huawei is the most scrutinized company in the world and has been taking measures to ensure the security of its products. Huawei R&D heavily focuses on security throughout the entire product lifecycle. Huawei has created testing centers in the UK, Brussels and Canada to allow for independent testing of Huawei’s equipment. Huawei is investing an additional $2 billion to strengthen our cybersecurity measures.
We are disappointed by the decision by a number of universities to suspend their relationships with Huawei but we understand the pressure they are facing. Our relationships with universities aspire to benefit everyone with the innovation that comes from basic scientific research. We believe research should be free from geopolitical influence, and we deny the allegations made by the US government.
The procurement guidance issued by the Japanese government does not provide specific details regarding a particular country or company.
In a discussion about Germany’s 5G roll-out (on April 8, 2019), the German Chancellor Angela Merkel says her government will not capitulate to pressure from the US and punish individual vendors. “There are two things I don’t believe in. First, to discuss these very sensitive security questions publicly, and second, to exclude a company simply because it’s from a certain country,’’ she said.
This is a sensible and considered approach. We reject any suggestion from the US that Huawei might pose a threat to national security. Cyber security has always been our top priority and we have a proven track record of providing secure products and solutions for our customers in Germany, and around the world.
The New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern held talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang in Beijing in early April. Before the meeting, she restated that Huawei will not be banned from the country’s 5G network and that no political or diplomatic influence was sought for this decision.
Huawei’s 5G (equipment) is not banned in Italy. On February 7, the Ministry of Economic Development of Italy said it does not intend to ban Huawei and ZTE from participating in the country’s 5G build-out, and denied the allegation that Huawei poses a threat to its national security.
US security officials are pressuring the Brazilian government to prevent Huawei from inclusion in the construction of the country’s 5G networks, in spite of Huawei’s 20-year record delivering safe and reliable networks across the country.
Huawei is a trusted partner to the government and has helped its public institutions to go digital, building its first e-government cloud. Working with Brazil’s telecom operators, Huawei has connected more than two-thirds of the country’s population in more than 20 cities.
Huawei filed a complaint in a US federal court to overturn Section 889 of the 2019 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) enacted by Congress, which prevents US government agencies from buying products from Huawei and from working with third parties that use our products or services.
We hope the court will rule a permanent injunction against Section 889 because it violates the Bill of Attainder Clause and the Due Process Clause; legislation at the heart of the US Constitution that upholds the right of anyone, including any company operating on US soil, to a fair trial and to due process of law.
Above all, Section 889 violates the fundamental Separation-of-Powers principles enshrined in the US Constitution. It allows Congress to make, adjudicate and execute the law at the same time, overreaching into other branches of government.
Without any evidence to contradict Huawei’s excellent security record and program, and without allowing Huawei the opportunity to defend itself, Congress has acted unconstitutionally as judge, jury and executioner. Therefore, Huawei has been compelled to take this legal action as a last resort.
We are disappointed by the charges brought against Huawei by the United States Department of Justice and we deny that we, our subsidiaries, or affiliates, committed any of the alleged violations of US law set forth in each of the indictments. The first charge concerns a civil suit between Huawei and T-Mobile in 2017 that was settled when a Seattle jury found Huawei not guilty of damages, nor willful and malicious conduct.
We are not aware of any wrongdoing by Meng Wanzhou, and we believe the US courts will agree. After Ms. Meng’s arrest, Huawei sought an opportunity to discuss the Eastern District of New York investigation with the Justice Department, but the request was rejected without explanation.
The allegations from the United States have not been backed up by any evidence so far. Huawei’s devices and networks are not a threat to the United States, or any country.
In the 30 years since Huawei’s founding, we have served over three billion people across 170 countries and maintained a spotless cyber-security track record. There has never been a single major cyber security incident. We have embedded strict security requirements into all of our systems used globally. We fully abide by all local laws and regulations in every nation we operate in.
As reported on January 11, 2019, the authorities in Poland arrested and charged two people with alleged spying activities and one of these people was a Huawei employee.
A spokesperson for the Polish security services said Poland’s Internal Security Agency (ISA) detained a Chinese citizen and a former Polish security official on January 8. Of the employee, he stated explicitly, “This matter has to do with his actions, it doesn’t have anything to do with the company he works for.”
Huawei’s corporate policy and our most fundamental operating principle is to abide by all applicable laws and regulations in the countries and regions where we operate, including all export control and sanction laws and regulations of the UN, US, and EU.
Canada has not restricted the use of Huawei’s technology. This includes 5G and existing mobile and connectivity network systems. We will continue to work with our Canadian customers as usual.
The Meng Wanzhou case is currently in legal proceedings, and we trust the legal systems of Canada and the United States to reach a just conclusion.
The Australian government's decision to block Huawei from the country’s 5G roll-out is politically motivated, not the result of a fact-based, transparent, or equitable decision-making process. It is not aligned with the long-term interests of the Australian people, and it denies Australian businesses and consumers the right to choose from the best communications technology available.
A non-competitive market will raise the cost of network construction and have lasting effects on Australia's transition to a digital economy. In the end, everyday businesses and consumers are the ones who will suffer the most from the government's actions.
In fact, evidence of this is already being seen with the cancellation of the country’s fourth mobile network. TPG Telecom puts the blame firmly on the government’s decision to ban Huawei as the sole reason and cites the increased costs and added complexities of using other vendors.
For any country, fair and robust market competition is essential to strong economic growth. The Australian government's actions undermine the principles of competition and non-discrimination in trade. The government has not identified any specific concerns about Huawei's governance, security, or suitability to safely and securely conduct business in Australia, so we’ve been given nothing to respond to.
Huawei’s business is strong, operations are normal, and we continue to enjoy the broad support of our financial partners across the globe.
Huawei values each and every one of our partners. We make every effort to ensure that our collaborative relationships, including those with our financial partners, create lasting and mutually beneficial value.
To date, Huawei has announced a US$2 billion fund to implement a Software Engineering Transformation within the company. The fund will be used to build more labs, hire more people to improve our software and to allow for increased scrutiny of our equipment.
Huawei has opened a Cyber Security Transparency Centre in Brussels. The Centre will offer government agencies, technical experts, industry associations, and standards organizations a platform, where they can communicate and collaborate to balance out security and development in the digital era.
Our testing facilities in the UK, Canada, Germany, and Belgium allow independent experts in signals intelligence and cyber security to assess our equipment and our software. No evidence has been found to show a so-called “backdoor” since these facilities were opened.
Huawei’s equipment and software is the most tested of any technology company in the world. We want to leave no room for doubt that our equipment does not pose a cyber-security threat and that we are willing to be completely transparent.
Huawei has never encountered a major security breach in over 30 years of business. Huawei continues to increase investment in software development and to work in collaboration with countries around the world to improve the security of the global supply chain.
Vodafone decided to pause deployment of Huawei equipment in its core networks in Europe. This does not mean that Vodafone’s relationship with Huawei has come to an end. We would like to make clear the core accounts for only a small proportion of Vodafone’s 5G network roll-out and that Huawei is still supporting the company’s 5G deployment.
Vodafone has been a long-term and strategic partner since 2007, and we are grateful for the company’s continued support and recognition of role we play in Europe’s telecommunications market. Nick Read, Vodafone’s CEO, acknowledges that facts are essential to the debate on cyber security and 5G suppliers: “Clearly, if there were a complete ban at radio level, then it would be a huge issue for us, but it would be a huge issue for the whole European telco sector…Now is the moment to engage with the security agencies, with politicians and with Huawei to improve everyone’s understanding.”
According to two independent, international law firms Zhong Lun and Clifford Chance, Chinese law does not compel Huawei to install so-called “backdoors” in telecommunications infrastructure. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China has also confirmed this claim is based on a misreading of China’s National Intelligence Law.
Clifford Chance reviewed an independent verification by Zhong Lun, which found the relevant articles of the Counter Espionage Law, the Anti-Terrorism Law, the Cyber Security Law, the National Intelligence Law, and the State Security Law do not empower PRC government authorities to plant so-called “backdoors,” eavesdropping devices or spyware in telecommunications equipment.
When asked if China would request a company to spy on other countries, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang told reporters that “this is not consistent with Chinese law. This is not how China behaves…we did not do that and will not do that in future.”
Huawei has never received such a request and we would categorically refuse to comply if we did. Huawei is an independent company that works only to serve its customers. We would never compromise or harm any country, organization, or individual, especially when it comes to cyber security and user privacy protection.
Huawei protects the privacy of everyone who uses our products and services. Privacy protection is just as important to us as cyber security.
Huawei is fully committed to expanding and refining a robust compliance system. We abide by all applicable laws and regulations in the countries and regions where we operate, including all export control and sanction laws and regulations of the UN, US, and EU. This is both corporate policy and our most fundamental operating principle.
All of Huawei's business units have cyber security and user privacy protection offices. They ensure that privacy protection is part of our day-to-day operations. Protecting customer privacy, and freedom of communication is an essential part of Huawei’s Employee Business Conduct Guidelines (BCGs). Each and every Huawei employee around the world is required to learn, sign, and comply with these guidelines.
Huawei is an independent, privately-held company. We are not owned or controlled by, nor affiliated with the government, or any other 3rd party corporation.
In fact, Huawei is owned by our employees through an Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP) that has been in place since the beginning. No one can own a share without working at Huawei, and as of 2018 there were 96,768 shareholding employees. Our founder, Ren Zhengfei, owns a 1.14% stake in the company.
Shares confer voting rights. Shareholding employees elect members to form a Representatives' Commission, getting one vote for each share held. Then the Commission elects the company’s Board of Directors and Supervisory Board. At the last election in January 2019, 86,514 shareholding employees voted to elect 115 representatives at 416 polling stations around the world.
Employee-ownership is instrumental to our rapid growth. Over the years, it has offered an incentive to our loyal employees and helped us attract talented people. Unlike many publicly-owned companies, Huawei’s decisions are not based on the need for quarterly returns and annual dividends.
Huawei is a private company, owned solely by our employees. No third parties hold any shares in the company, and that includes the Chinese government.
We are a global company that works openly and transparently with the governments of 170 countries where we do business. We have commercial agreements in place with these governments, and this includes China. We sell civil communication products to the Chinese government, and that is the extent of the relationship.
Chinese law states that Chinese and foreign companies operating in China must set up CPC committees. In accordance with this law, Huawei had set up a CPC Committee. Our CPC Committee is not involved in any operational or business decisions.
Our founder Ren Zhengfei is a member of the CPC but this has no bearing on the business. To explain why, it is useful to put this into its historical context. When Ren Zhengfei was a young man, you needed to be a CPC member to have any position of responsibility, even as the head of a cooking team in the military.
Our founder Ren Zhengfei is a CEO who, like many other business leaders in the US and elsewhere, served in the military at an early stage of his life. Ren joined the People’s Liberation Army Engineering Corps in 1974 and retired nine years later in 1983.
As a technician in the military, Ren was assigned work to help build a factory for a French company called Technip Speichim. The factory was based in Liaoyang, producing synthetic fibers for clothing. It gave Ren experience of technology with a level of advanced automation that did not exist elsewhere in China.
The factory ran out of an instrument used to test the manufacturing equipment. Using mathematical inference, Ren designed the instrument and it earned him industry recognition and an invitation to become a member of the National Science Conference. However, Huawei’s technology has no relation whatsoever with Mr Ren’s previous experience in the corps.