We have over 62,000 product and solution R&D employees, which comprise more than 44% of Huawei's total employees worldwide. We have set up 23 research centers in Germany, Sweden, the UK, France, Italy, Russia, India, China, and other countries. In addition, we have established 34 joint innovation centers with top carriers to transform leading technologies into competitive advantages and business success for our customers.
As of 2011, Huawei had filed 36,344 patent applications in China, 10,650 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), and 10,978 patent applications overseas. We have got 23,522 granted patents, 90% of which are invention patents. With regard to cloud computing technologies, Huawei possesses 685 patents in China, 226 in Europe, and 107 in the US. Huawei has played a major role in standards development in cloud computing and is one of the DMTF's 14 board members. In addition, Huawei led the establishment of the ARDM work group in the cloud computing/data center sector for the IEFT and has served as the chair for the group. Huawei also extensively participates in cloud computing standards organizations.
Huawei supports mainstream international standards and contributes to the formulation of such standards. By the end of 2011, Huawei had joined 130 industry standards organizations, such as the 3GPP, IETF, ITU, OMA, ETSI, IEEE, and 3GPP2. In total, Huawei submitted more than 28,000 proposals to these standards organizations and has served as a board member for OMA, CCSA, ETSI, ATIS, and numerous other authoritative organizations in which it holds more than 180 positions.
In 2011, Huawei was awarded six top LTE awards from around the globe which served as the industry's affirmation of our continued investment and significant contributions to the research and development of LTE technology, commercial practices, standard patents, integration of the industry chain, and other areas.
Huawei's R&D expenses totaled CNY23,696 million in 2011, and the company has spent accumulatively over CNY100 billion on R&D over the last decade.